A criminal offense is defined as an act that deserves condemnation or punishment under the criminal law that defines criminal acts and behaviors, and penalties for each type and entails a criminal case in which the public prosecutor has the right, and that is brought before the criminal courts. The world has known criminal cases since time immemorial, whether it was murder, kidnapping, insulting, cursing, harming, beating and other cases that require legal intervention to achieve stability in societies. These are those crimes that are punishable by the death penalty, life imprisonment with hard labor, temporary hard labor or imprisonment.
Criminal offenses vary between intentional, in which the offender intends to act and its consequences, such as premeditated murder or thefts of all kinds, and non-intentional, which is intended to commit an act without producing the result, such as beatings that lead to death and did not intend to cause death except that beating led to death. In this second type of crime, the punishment is less than the first type, as the legislator takes into account that the offender did not intend to kill. As for the third type, it is the crime committed by mistake, meaning that the offender did not intend the material act itself or the result thereof, but rather the crime occurred as a result of his negligence, recklessness or lack of knowledge of the laws. The penalty in this third case is either a fine, imprisonment, or one of the two penalties.
The forms of criminal offenses are divided into crimes against persons, which affect an individual by assault or threat to his life, crimes against property, which affect the rights of persons of economic or financial value, and crimes against morals, which constitute a violation against the public morals of society such as corruption, rape, adultery, publication and distribution Indecent images or content or incitement to commit such aforementioned crimes.
In order for the crime to be completed, its elements must be present. According to the official website of the Public Prosecution in Dubai,
The basic principle is that every crime consists of two pillars, the material pillar and the moral pillar, and if one of them is left behind, the act is considered not criminal, as the law requires for some crimes a special intent. The material element of the crime, as stated in Article (31) of the Federal Penal Code and its amendments, means any criminal activity by committing an act or omission when such commission or omission is legally criminal.
As for the moral element of the crime, it is intentional or negligent in accordance with Article (38) of the Federal Penal Code. As for the error, it is provided by the occurrence of the criminal result due to the fault of the perpetrator, whether by his negligence, lack of attention, lack of caution, recklessness, recklessness, or non-observance of laws, regulations, regulations and orders.